The excerpts below representing each of the 10 steps are taken directly from the toolkit.
Step 1. Define the problem, audiences and ideal behavior. Experience and reality show us that organizational priorities play a significant role on whether, when and how resources are spent and on what. It is important to determine what the present organizational priorities are and use these as the starting point to focus the promotion effort. Areas in which an organization works, areas of importance, and priorities change constantly within any organization or agency. Thus, it is necessary to regularly reassess these priorities so that a promotion program can focus on what is important at the moment. It is not enough to identify the problem. While it is necessary to have a general understanding of the root of the problem, it is also important to determine the target audience to ensure the most effective promotion campaign.
Step 2. Gather information. As much as possible, it is essential to understand a target audience’s ability to practice an ideal behavior, influences that can catalyze this ideal behavior, motivations promoting or hindering this ideal behavior, as well as factors surrounding the infrastructure, product, and service improvements needed to practice this ideal behavior, the promotional elements fostering the behavior, and the supporting environment required to support this behavior. This information can be obtained through properly conducted surveys and focus group discussions.
Step 3. Focus the feasible behaviors, audience and problems. Behavior change happens little by little. An audience has competing concerns that they face every day. There may not be only one program that is asking an audience to change its behavior. Since a program wants to turn intention into action, it must ensure that it understands:
The competing concerns of its audience. What other behavior changes are they facing or being encouraged to adopt?
How its audience perceives the result of the behavior to be recommended. Do they consider it a reward?
What value the audience places on that result. For them, is it worth it?
How the program makes its desired behavior change a “worthwhile reward.” What incentives does the audience need/want?
Step 4. Detail the broad change strategy. There are three broad intervention areas to a promotion program on any topic: infrastructure, products and service improvements; promotion; and supporting environment. Each broad intervention area is comprised of specific components. Infrastructure specifies what needs to be built to enable the desired practices. Products list other materials, items or hardware necessary to effectively practice the behavior. Service Improvements recommend possible changes to present services that will facilitate the adoption and sustained practice of behaviors.
Supporting environment includes policies, institutional arrangements, implementation capacity and financing. Policies suggest ways that the government can create a more favorable environment in which to practice the desired behaviors. Institutional arrangements and implementation capacity provide guidance on the systems and organizational structures needed, as well as capacity building required to support an effort. Financing itemizes options and choices for financing the necessary elements. The supporting environment includes activities at all levels: national, regional, district, community/village and household.
Promotion includes information and education, behavior change communication, social marketing, training and mobilization.
Step 5. Prepare the specific promotion plan. It is easiest to develop, track and evaluate promotion objectives that reflect the feasible practices and doable steps as they follow the behavior change continuum stages. In this way, not only can progress be seen as a result of the promotion, but next steps clearly emerge to continue to move the target audience to take action, to adopt and to continue to practice. It allows the promotion to be phased from one program to the next. It enables the promotion to focus on what is essential at the time.
There are four types of media/channels: (1) print, (2) non-print, (3) traditional, and (4) interpersonal. Each type includes various creative forms or channels such as posters (print), radio spots (non-print), folkdance (traditional), and role plays (interpersonal). Experience has shown that smaller promotion program teams and mid-sized organizations can effectively develop, pretest, and implement up to five forms of media depending on financial and human resources available to them. They can be more effective if they focus their energies.
Step 6. Develop promotional materials and activities. Effective promotion invests the product, concept or idea with a vivid, appealing personality that helps it stand out from the crowd. Like a friendly face, it signals genuine values in likeable ways.
Building a product or concept personality takes consistency. Advertising, packaging, and design must all speak with the same voice. Building personality takes time as well. Awareness can be achieved overnight. Familiarity and acceptance take longer. But once created, this personality can be the most valuable and enduring asset a product/concept has.
Step 7. Pretest and finalize. Pretest analysis examines five areas. It is used to identify material and activity weaknesses in each area and to provide recommendations for “fixing” each material and each activity before the next round of pretest, and before finalization. These five areas are:
- Attractiveness - Is the piece interesting?
- Comprehension - Is it easily understood? Is it subject to misinterpretation?
- Acceptability - Is it compatible with cultural norms?
- Identification - Does the target audience feel that the messages are directed towards them?
- Motivation - Does the message convince the target audience?
Step 8. Implement the promotional program. List all activities planned for the promotion program.
- Review initial eight-month plan of action.
- Program implementation activities over a three-to four-month period.
- Incorporate appropriate media and activities, distribution and timing based on the media plan developed.
- Complete the implementation plan.
Developing a media plan is one tool for implementing the promotional program. A media plan is comprised of five components: (1) rationale, (2) budget, (3) production, (4) timing, and (5) logistics. Rationale details the overarching types of media selected for the promotion – non-print, print, interpersonal, and traditional – and the reason for including each.
Step 9. Monitor. Monitor the promotion program in terms of outcome, process and impact.
Outcome indicators assess any change due to the promotion program. Outcomes are more specific in scope based on the purpose of the promotion. Changes can be found in:
- Awareness - percentage who can cite hand washing with soap as an important personal hygiene practice
- Knowledge - number who can name the five critical times to wash your hands
- Attitude - percentage who state that hand washing with soap is a vital means to reduce diarrhea
- Skills - percentage who demonstrate the ability to wash their hands properly (properly being well-defined)
- Behavior - percentage who report or are observed washing their hands after defecation
Process indicators assess how well a program is being implemented:
- Training conduct - number of trainings fully completed, number of personnel trained, number of personnel certified
- Activities conduct - number of activities fully carried out, percentage of target audience participation at these activities
- Distribution of materials - number of materials distributed/aired (where, when, and according to plan)
- Distribution of products required - number of products distributed (where, when, and according to plan)
Impact indicators assess a direct result of the outcomes and the process and are much broader in scope than outcomes:
- Status - percentage increase of child growth rate, percentage decrease in diarrheal diseases
- Morbidity and mortality - percentage decrease in child morbidity due to diarrheal diseases
- Economic status - percentage decrease in monthly household expenditures on diarrheal disease-related products/activities
Step 10. Evaluate and Improve. Evaluate the program by objectively reviewing the results:
Present findings and discuss recommendations.
Assess whether the findings and recommendations suggest that our agency should:
- Correct the present program
- Continue to the next phase
- Begin a new promotion program
- Agree upon next steps for moving forward.
If need to correct the present program, acknowledge the successes achieved, look to the future to improve what didn’t work as planned, congratulate the team and all those who made this promotion program possible and return to Step 1.
If need to move onto a new phase or a new promotion program, congratulate the team and all those who made this promotion program a success and return to Step 1.
If finished for the time being, congratulate the team and all those who made this promotion program a success and take a well-earned rest.